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In the previous post, we saw how .d directories permit programmatic edits to system-wide configuration with ease. But this same concept can be applied to other kinds of tracking. Let's dive into a few examples ranging from desktop menu entries to the package manager's database itself.
Have you ever wondered why an increasing number of programs are configured by placing small files in .d directories instead of by just editing a single file? Have you ever wondered why these .d directories seem to proliferate in Linux installations? Read on to understand what these are and why they are useful.
In the previous posts, we saw why waiting for a process group is complicated and we covered a specific, bullet-proof mechanism to accomplish this on Linux. Now is the time to investigate this same topic on macOS. Remember that the problem we are trying to solve (#10245) is the following: given a process group, wait for all of its processes to fully terminate. macOS has a bunch of fancy features that other systems do not have, but process control is not among them.
In the previous post, we saw why waiting for a process group to terminate is important (at least in the context of Bazel), and we also saw why this is a difficult thing to do in a portable manner. So today, let’s dive into how to do this properly on a Linux system. On Linux, we have two routes: using the child subreaper feature or using PID namespaces. We’ll focus on the former because that’s what we’ll use to fix (#10245) the process wrapper1, and because they are sufficient to fully address our problem.
Process groups are a feature of Unix systems to group related processes under a common identifier, known as the PGID. Using the PGID, one can look for these related process and send signals in unison to them. This is typically used by shell interpreters to manage processes. For example, let’s launch a shell command that puts two sleep invocations in the background (those with the 10- and 20-second delays) and then sleeps the direct child (with a 5-second delay)—while also putting the whole invocation in the background so that we can inspect what’s going on:
As strange as it may sound, a very important job of any build tool is to orchestrate the execution of lots of other programs—and Bazel is no exception. Once Bazel has finished loading and analyzing the build graph, Bazel enters the execution phase. In this phase, the primary thing that Bazel does is walk the graph looking for actions to execute. Then, for each action, Bazel invokes its commands—things like compiler and linker invocations—as subprocesses.
The current working directory, or CWD for short, is a process-wide property. It is good practice to treat the CWD as read-only because it is essentially global state: if you change the CWD of your process at any point, any relative paths you might have stored in memory1 will stop working. I learned this first many years ago when using the Boost.Filesystem library: I could not find a function to change the CWD and that was very much intentional for this reason.
Many programming guides recommend to begin scripts with the #! /usr/bin/env shebang in order to to automatically locate the necessary interpreter. For example, for a Python script you would use #! /usr/bin/env python, and then the saying goes, the script would “just work” on any machine with Python installed. The reason for this recommendation is that /usr/bin/env python will search the PATH for a program called python and execute the first one found… and that usually works fine on one’s own machine.
If you write shell scripts, you definitely need to know about two nice features that can be enabled through the set builtin: set -e: Enables checking of all commands. If a command exits with an error and the caller does not check such error, the script aborts immediately. Enabling this will make your scripts more robust. But don’t wait until your script is “complete” to set the flag as an afterthought, because it will be a nightmare to fix the scrip to work with this feature enabled.
If you have ever ran ls on a directory whose contents don't fit on screen, you may have tried to list only a part of it by passing a wildcard to the command. For example, if you were only interested in all directory entries starting with an f, you might have tried ls f*. But did that do what you expected? Most likely not if any of those matching entries was a directory.
This article first appeared on this date in O’Reilly’s ONLamp.com online publication. The content was deleted sometime in 2019 but I was lucky enough to find a copy in the WayBack Machine. I reformatted the text to fit the style of this site and fixed broken links, but otherwise the content is a verbatim reproduction of what was originally published. The Apache HTTP Server is the most popular web server due to its functionality, stability, and maturity.
This article first appeared on this date in O’Reilly’s ONLamp.com online publication. The content was deleted sometime in 2019 but I was lucky enough to find a copy in the WayBack Machine. I reformatted the text to fit the style of this site and fixed broken links, but otherwise the content is a verbatim reproduction of what was originally published. My previous article, Making Packager-Friendly Software (part 1), explains why software packaging is sometimes problematic due to real problems in the mainstream sources.
This article first appeared on this date in O’Reilly’s ONLamp.com online publication. The content was deleted sometime in 2019 but I was lucky enough to find a copy in the WayBack Machine. I reformatted the text to fit the style of this site and fixed broken links, but otherwise the content is a verbatim reproduction of what was originally published. A package maintainer, or packager, is a person who creates packages for software projects.